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An effective way to reduce the cost of refrigeration equipment

Hits:Updated:2018-08-14 10:08:23【Print】

With the gradual deepening of enterprise information construction, the importance of data centers and network rooms has become increasingly prominent. However, data center energy consumption has become a big expense for enterprises. In today's era, energy is becoming scarcer and more expensive, so energy conservation and emission reduction has become an urgent problem to be solved.
 
According to statistics, the annual power consumption of servers in the United States exceeds 10 billion US dollars, and more than one-third of the cost is used for heat dissipation of servers. We see that an average price of 10 cents per degree makes most IT managers (ITmanagers) keenly aware that the company's data center's electricity bill is rising rapidly. In some cities with tight electricity supply in China, electricity prices are even higher. But interestingly, most data center managers turn a blind eye to these costs. For them, the biggest concern is whether they can provide sufficient power for the data center's continuously increasing workload. At the same time, equipment managers don't care about these issues when paying bills. In the future, as power and heat issues become more prevalent and prominent, energy resources are becoming more and more urgent, and reducing energy consumption is an inevitable trend.
 
According to a survey conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the United States, a typical data center power consumption ratio is:
 
1. IT equipment (servers, switches, routers, etc.) accounted for 44%;
 
2. Refrigeration equipment (precision air conditioners and fans in the engine room) accounted for 38%;
 
3. Power equipment (UPS, SPM, etc.) accounted for 15%;
 
4. Lighting accounts for 3%;
 
From the above ratio, it is not difficult to see that the power consumption of the refrigeration equipment is second only to the power consumption of the IT main equipment. How to reduce the power consumption of the 38% to the minimum, how to reduce the data center more effectively. The operating costs, I will discuss the following issues:
 
(1) Correctly selecting the IT equipment cabinet of the equipment room
 
What is the cabinet? Many people regard the cabinet as a cabinet for IT equipment. The cabinet is a cabinet, which is a low-value, subsidiary product in IT applications. It is only a container for accommodating servers and other devices, and it is not taken seriously; With the development of computer and network technologies, IT facilities such as servers and network communication equipment in data centers are developing in the direction of miniaturization, networking, racking, and blade; this brings the data center construction model. New changes. A 42U cabinet can hold 42 servers, which will bring new challenges to our cabinets: heat dissipation, cable management, and cabinet monitoring.
 
The choice of cabinets must first follow the rules of the cooling air duct design of IT equipment. At present, IT products such as servers, switches, routers, etc. are designed with the cooling air duct design that goes out of the wind, so we need to choose the cabinet. This concept is to design the cooling duct of the cabinet, see the following figure
 
1. Through-hole ratio of the cabinet
 
From Figure 1-1, we can see that the cold air of the air conditioner enters from the front room of the cabinet and is extracted from the hot air at the back of the cabinet to form a duct circulation. In the daily computer room management, many computer room management personnel mistakenly believe that as long as the temperature of the entire equipment room drops, the temperature of the server in the cabinet will drop, but in fact, we will find that the overall temperature of the equipment room has dropped, and the cabinet environment management unit can be lowered. But the alarm, the temperature of the cabinet is very high, why is this? In fact, we can see the cause of the problem by analyzing the reason. On this issue, we will mention the term "through-hole ratio" on a cabinet, that is, the aperture occupancy on the front panel of the cabinet; see Figure 1-1. When the cold air is sent into the cabinet from the front, the higher the through hole rate, the more cold air is sent in. However, because the through hole rate is low, some of the cold air is blocked outside the cabinet and cannot be fully fed into the cabinet. , the temperature of the equipment room is low, and the specified requirements are met, but the internal environmental management unit of the cabinet reports an alarm that the temperature is too high; therefore, the through-hole ratio is an important parameter when selecting the cabinet, because the higher the through-hole ratio, the cold air usage rate The more complete, the air conditioning cooling operation rate is greatly reduced, and the operating cost is effectively reduced.
 
2. Cable management of the cabinet
 
We just mentioned that 42 servers can be placed in a 42U cabinet; most of them use redundant components (such as redundant power supplies, storage arrays, etc.), the equipment configuration in the cabinet changes frequently, and the data lines and cables are increased or decreased at any time. Therefore, the cabinet must provide sufficient cable access and cable management accessories to access cables from the top and bottom of the cabinet. Inside the cabinet, the cable must be laid in a convenient and orderly manner, close to the cable interface of the device to shorten the wiring distance; reduce the space occupied by the cable, and ensure that the device is not interfered by the wiring during installation, adjustment, and maintenance; And ensure that the heat dissipation airflow is not affected because the hot airflow cannot be fully discharged because the cable is not properly arranged, and a part of the residual airflow short circuit occurs inside the cabinet; therefore, reasonable cable management can effectively improve the airflow circulation and rapidly reduce the internal temperature of the cabinet. Greatly reduce the running time of refrigeration equipment.
 
3. Use of blind board
 
In the composition of the cabinet accessories, there is an accessory called blind board, which has 1U, 2U, 3U specifications, etc. In the matching, few people will choose the blind board attachment, because most people think that the blind board is to make the vacant U look. It is more beautiful and more tidy to design such an attachment to fill the U height of the vacancy. In fact, people have neglected the biggest role of this blind plate. In fact, the designer designed the blind plate to solve the exhaust heat cycle; more effectively block the hot air and cold air to avoid the short circuit of hot and cold air, see the following two groups. :
 
Most people think that the cabinet is a rack used to carry physical IT equipment, and it is ignored to prevent the hot air that is discharged from the IT equipment from blocking into the air inlet of the IT equipment. The hot air is pressurized and added. The suction of the cold air of the intake port may cause the hot air to be re-sucked into the air inlet. From the above figure, we can clearly see that the hot air without the blind plate is removed from the vacant U space to the air inlet, so that the air inlet is cold air. After mixing with the hot air of the air outlet, enter the IT equipment and increase the temperature of the cold air of the air inlet. The parameters obtained by the relevant authoritative laboratory show that the hot and cold air recirculation will cause the temperature of the IT equipment in the cabinet to rise by 8 °C. Because the cabinet without blind blocking greatly reduces the use rate of cold air, the refrigeration equipment is seriously wasted. The cooling capacity; look at the cabinet with blind plate, effectively blocking the hot air of the air outlet, avoiding the recirculation of hot and cold air.
 
 
 
Through the above three points, we can easily see that reasonable selection of cabinets has great effect and economic benefits on the full utilization of heat dissipation and cooling efficiency of IT equipment. At present, the mainstream cabinets in the industry are: EMERSON, APC, Rittal, etc. Among them, the Miracel series cabinets produced by Emerson's German Knurr subsidiary have the highest through-hole ratio of 83% in the industry (72% in the industry standard), and abundant cables. Management units and a wide range of accessories; the best products for next-generation, high-quality cabinet solutions designed to meet today's and tomorrow's data center environments.
 
(2) Reasonable selection of equipment room refrigeration equipment
 
The heat generated by each device in the data center needs to be solved by air cooling. The best cooling equipment in the data center is the precision air conditioner for the computer room. However, some customers will ask why ordinary commercial air conditioners are not allowed. Both are used. Reduce the temperature of the space environment, and commercial air conditioners are much cheaper than the air conditioners for the computer room? In fact, the equipment environment control equipment is not as simple as everyone thinks. It only needs to reduce the temperature of the environment. It needs to be considered from many aspects, such as temperature control accuracy, environmental humidity, cleanliness, control management, etc. Air conditioning is to control the temperature of the equipment room, and civil air conditioning is directly serving people. Their design concepts and functions are completely different. The biggest difference in design concept is that the air conditioner in the computer room is a large air volume, small enthalpy difference, high sensible heat ratio (the concept of sensible heat ratio refers to the ratio of air conditioning cooling and dehumidification power); civil air conditioning is just the opposite, it is small air volume , large sputum difference, low sensible heat ratio.
 
IT hardware in data centers and network systems generates a large amount of concentrated heat while operating, and is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity. A slight fluctuation in temperature and humidity can cause serious problems in the system, and the system can generate useless information. In the IT equipment room, the heat load is almost entirely from the sensible heat emitted by IT hardware, lighting equipment, supporting equipment and engines. The IT equipment room contains little latent heat because there are fewer people, limited external air, and physics. The structure also often contains a moisture barrier. The air conditioning SHR requirements to meet the equipment room environment are very high, reaching 0.95 to 0.99. Precision air conditioning systems are designed to meet these systems with extremely high sensible heat ratios. In contrast, comfortable air conditioning systems typically have an SHR of 0.65 to 0.70, which provides only a lower amount of sensible cooling and a higher submerged cooling capacity. Excessive latent heat cooling means that a lot of moisture in the air is removed. In order to maintain the required range of 35 to 50% relative humidity, the air conditioning equipment is required to continuously humidify, which will consume a large amount of energy and cause unnecessary waste.
 
The number of air cycles in the IDC room will reach about 30 times per hour, that is, the air in the machine room will be treated every two minutes. The air volume of civil air conditioners will be very small, in the position of air conditioning air outlets, IT equipment heat dissipation is very good, but the heat dissipation effect of IT equipment farther away from the air conditioning air outlet position will be worse and worse, even the inability to cool air leads to IT The equipment is overheated and down; the air volume of the air conditioner in the equipment room will be very large, and the air volume designed according to the environment of the equipment room will be strictly controlled, and local overheating will not occur. In addition, the air conditioning of the computer room has a longer continuous operation capability and a longer service life. For example, Emerson's computer room air conditioners (DataMate3000 series, PEX series, high heat density XD series) can provide 24 hours, 365 days of continuous continuous operation for more than 10 years. For civil air conditioners, if it is kept for 24 hours and 365 days, the life of this civil air conditioner will not exceed three years. Therefore, when selecting the refrigeration equipment of the equipment room, it is necessary to strictly select the refrigeration equipment according to the requirements of the equipment room environment. Rather than for the initial investment, the "flying small profits" choose non-machine room-specific refrigeration equipment.
 
(3) Proper placement of IT equipment and cabinet layout
 
1. IT equipment placement
 
With the miniaturization, high-density of servers, and the emergence of blade servers, the placement of these servers is becoming more and more irrelevant to IT managers. We all know that one of the most notable features of high-power devices is the large amount of heat. , may be 1 times or more higher than ordinary IT equipment. If these high-power loads and high-density server combinations are placed in a single cabinet, a high-density device cluster will emerge, creating a huge heating group, which is the most likely to cause local hot spots in the data center. Often IT managers put these devices together for aesthetics and ease of management, but from the above analysis, it is clear that this placement is wrong and it will cost a corresponding amount. In order to solve this local hot spot, IT managers have to reduce the temperature of the entire computer room environment or add special refrigeration equipment to deal with this local heating point. In fact, for such problems, we can completely divide these high-power devices and high-density servers into each cabinet, so that there will be no high-power, high-density equipment groups, and it will not be able to form hot spots and cooling difficulties in the data center. Will greatly reduce the operating costs and procurement costs of refrigeration equipment.
 
Due to the low power density of our IT equipment in the past, incorrect airflow placement will not cause serious problems. However, with the trend of high-density and high-power IT equipment development, these problems have not been ignored by IT management personnel. Proper selection of refrigeration equipment and cabinets, as well as a reasonable cabinet layout will greatly improve the cooling efficiency, and will also greatly reduce the total cost of ownership of IT equipment operation, I believe this will be the direction and trend of the future design and development of our data center.
 
2. Cabinet layout
 
In the cabinet layout of the modern computer room, all the cabinets are placed in the same direction for the sake of beauty and easy observation. If this way, the cabinet blind plate mentioned above effectively blocks the effect of hot and cold air. Will be greatly discounted. Why do you say this? When the cabinets are placed in the same direction, the front of the first row of cabinets is directly facing the front of the second row of cabinets; thus, the channels in the middle of the two rows of cabinets will have a hot and cold airflow mixing cycle, resulting in a short circuit of hot and cold airflow. The cold air inlet temperature of the second row of cabinets is greatly increased, which seriously damages the ambient temperature of the cold air passages; our correct placement method should be to place the server cabinets face to face or back to back, thus forming a cold air passage and a hot air passage. The hot and cold air between the cabinets will not be mixed together to form a short-circuit airflow, which greatly mentions the cooling effect and protects the hot and cold passages from being damaged. See the schematic diagram for the correct placement.
 
The above is the discussion and solution of the cooling energy saving problem in the computer room. As long as you can follow the above introduction, I believe it will reduce the cost of your computer room refrigeration equipment.
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